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 HOW TO DEAL WITH READING DIFFICULTIES

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PostSubject: HOW TO DEAL WITH READING DIFFICULTIES   Sun Mar 30, 2014 2:48 am

29.03.2014
Introduction




Research in second language reading suggests that learners use a variety of strategies to comprehend a text. STRATEGIES are defined as learning techniques, behaviors, problem-solving or study skills which make learning more effective and efficient. Comprehension or reading strategies on the other hand, indicate how readers conceive of a text, how they make sense of what they read, and what they do when they don't understand. In short, such strategies are processes used by the learner to enhance reading comprehension and overcome comprehension failures 


READING DIFFICULTIES


Reading Strategies


These strategies consist of a whole range of strategies including


Skimming and scanning.


 Contextual guessing.


 Reading for meaning).    Utilizing background knowledge ).





Techniques that help the learner to remember and retrieve information are referred to as memory strategies


 Note taking.


 Summarizing.


 Paraphrasing.


 Predicting.


 Analyzing.


General view to the problem


Our view of reading is based on the writings of those like Smith (1978),the Goodman (1967), and Coady (1979) who show that reading is essentially a'top-down process, whereby the reader samples the text visually, making use of background knowledge - what Widdowson (1983), following Bartlett(1932), calls "schematic knowledge". To understand, the reader has to proceed reasonably fast if "tunnel vision" (the inability to see the wood for the trees) is to be avoided. This rapid sampling of the text is based on the reader’s "hypotheses": at all times we are unconsciously predicting the content and the sense of what we are reading and are about to read. Readers in a foreign language are especially prone to "tunnel vision", of course: they are held up by problems of vocabulary and grammar. What we have been trying to do, however, is to train students to "cope", to use a "top-down" strategy, applying their background knowledge and hypotheses about text meaning to the full. As a consequence, students realize that they can read authentic texts without frustratingly frequent reference to the dictionary, which is most important from an affective point of view. At the same time, they have to concentrate on the main ideas, as they will not be able to grasp all the details.


Comprehension Difficulties


  Exist.


 Are not always caused by word recognition and decoding difficulties.


 Can be caused by many different things.


Causes of Comprehension Difficulties:


 Difficulties with word recognition and decoding 
 Difficulties with fluency


 Poor short-term and/or working memory


 Difficulties with oral language


 Speech and language impairments


 Limited language proficiency


 Difficulties with written language


 Lack or poor use of strategies


 Difficulties related to prior knowledge


 Lack of relevant prior knowledge


 Failure to apply relevant prior knowledge


 Application of irrelevant prior knowledge


 Preventing and Addressing Reading Comprehension Difficulties


 Assess and intervene in the areas that can cause reading comprehension difficulties


Note: There is not necessarily a one-to-one mapping between causes of reading comprehension difficulties and most effective approaches to addressing them. For example, the best way to improve reading comprehension for a child with weak short-term memory may be to improve reading comprehension strategy use.


 Make language development, both oral and written, central to education at all levels


 Develop oral language competencies.


 Develop knowledge of written language -- vocabulary, registers, genres, etc.


 Develop solid word recognition, decoding, and fluency.


  Build rich content knowledge.


 Develop strategic readers.


 Inspire reading engagement.


Five components of teaching comprehension strategies


 An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used.


 Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action


 Collaborative use of the strategy in action.


 Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility.


 Independent use of the strategy.


TO Sum, We've Got To


Assess and intervene in the areas that can cause reading comprehension difficulties.


 Make language development, both oral and written, central to education at all levels.


 Develop solid word recognition and decoding, and fluency.


 Build rich content knowledge.


 Develop strategic readers.


 Inspire reading engagement

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PostSubject: Re: HOW TO DEAL WITH READING DIFFICULTIES   Sun Mar 30, 2014 4:27 am

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